There are over 70 defined terms and these form the foundation around which the Rules are written. A good knowledge of the defined terms (which are in a lighter blue and bold) is very important to the correct application of the Rules.
Any living member of the animal kingdom (other than humans), including mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and invertebrates (such as worms, insects, spiders and crustaceans).
Areas of the Course
Conditions Affecting the Stroke
The specifications and other regulations for clubs, balls and other equipment that players are allowed to use during a round. The Equipment Rules are found at RandA.org/EquipmentStandards.
Foursomes (also known as "Alternate Shot")
Loss of hole in match play or two penalty strokes in stroke play.
Ground Under Repair
The right of a player to play first from the teeing area (see Rule 6.4).
To alter one or more of the conditions affecting the stroke or other physical conditions affecting play so that a player gains a potential advantage for a stroke.
Known or Virtually Certain
Line of Play
A form of stroke play where a player’s or side's score for a hole is capped at a maximum number of strokes (including strokes made and any penalty strokes) set by the Committee, such as two times par, a fixed number or net double bogey.
The effects of nature such as wind, water or when something happens for no apparent reason because of the effects of gravity.
Nearest Point of Complete Relief
No Play Zone
The person a player competes against in a match. The term opponent applies only in match play.
Out of Bounds
A player who competes together with another player as a side, in either match play or stroke play.
Point of Maximum Available Relief
18 or fewer holes played in the order set by the Committee.
Stroke and Distance
An object used to raise a ball above the ground to play it from the teeing area. It must be no longer than four inches (101.6 mm) and conform with the Equipment Rules.